Electric Vehicle Architecture & EV Powertrain Components, Explained

Electric Vehicle Architecture & EV Powertrain Components, Explained

Green mobility or Electric vehicle is now becoming a need of the current era to meet the environmental target of zero-emission.

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Green mobility or Electric vehicle is now becoming a need of the current era to meet the environmental target of zero-emission. EVs must be sustainable for society, and the Electric vehicle architecture will achieve that. Vehicle architecture needs to be flexible so it can adopt drive train electrification.

As per the Startup guide for EV technology, ICE vehicle architecture is specific and complex to understand. Still, an advantage point in EV is that there is a new freedom for design, in the design of new components and implementation in electric car architecture is possible.


The electric vehicle drivetrain offers new freedom in terms of electric vehicle architectures while leading to new challenges in terms of meeting all requirements.

EV powertrain startups have an electric motor and a battery instead of a combustion engine and a fuel tank. As a result, the architecture becomes simple and controllable for the component level. However, these modifications require extensive adoptions to integrate the battery safely.

When designing the architecture for EV, it is mandatory to use modeling and simulation tools, with specific consideration of electric powertrain, including battery, power electronics, electric motors, sensors, and control system.

According to the Battery technology consulting, in ICE, engine power production is not uniform because reciprocating components cause mechanical loss; hence engine is not self-started to resolve this issue. Other components are added to the architecture, resulting in the engine becoming heavy. On the other hand, electric vehicle architecture consists of a self-started motor and can easily control by the input current.

They produce constant power and speed at the outcome because the motor is lighter than ICE. The Electric vehicle architecture is the backbone of the EVs. Electric vehicle architecture is categorized in the following way.

Pursuing are the Styles of Electric Vehicle

• Hybrid electric vehicle

• Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)

• Battery electric vehicle (BEV)

There are different potential and configurations in the above models, but PHEV has the same drive train as of Electric Vehicle.

Fundamentals of EV powertrain Hybrid vehicle architecture, the established vehicle is modified with electric motors, and drive cycle operation is so that the fuel-burning engine is most efficient in a small range. At the most efficient operating point, it produces less emission.

Hybrid vehicle architecture is similarly categorized into three various versions

• Series hybrid vehicle

• Parallel hybrid vehicle

• Series- a parallel hybrid vehicle

The different architecture of the Hybrid vehicles, as per name working is understandable like if series architecture than energy flow from engine and battery is in series or if parallel architecture they will operate in the different effective region in a parallel manner and combination of both architectures is used for best performance of the Electric vehicle.

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) can be driven with a nearly empty battery because it has a fossil fuel tank. The plus point is that the battery can be charged while driving on fuel, whereas in Battery, an electric vehicle (BEV) is run only on the battery charge. It has fewer components in its architecture.