Preliminary checklist of desmids from Kokrajhar District, Assam, India | JBES
The present investigation shows that the desmids flora of Kokrajhar District of Assam is rich and diverse. Among the observed genera, Cosmarium has the maximum.
This paper presents a precursor in the investigation of the desmids of Kokrajhar District, Assam, India. The present study deals with the diversity of desmids from different freshwater habitats of the district. For this study samples were collected randomly from 12 different habitats around the district from January 2018 to April 2019. Seventy-one species were observed comprising eleven genera: Actinotaenium (1), Arthrodesmus (3), Bambusina (1), Closterium (12), Cosmarium (16), Desmidium (4), Euastrum (6), Gonatozygon (1), Hyalotheca (1), Micrasterias (6), Nerium (1), Onychonema (1), Pentium (1), Pleuroteanium (5), Spirotaenia (1), Staurastrum (6), Triplocerus (1) and Xanthidium (4). Among the observed taxa, some appeared to be the new records for the state of Assam, India.
Desmids are unicellular micro-organisms belonging to the division Chlorophyta and order Zygnematales (Kadiri, 2002). These are considered as the closest living relatives of land plants (Timme et al., 2012, Turmel et al., 2013). This beautiful group of algae has diverse symmetry and attractive forms, that have long been attracted the interest of scientist since early time and a great number of observations were made from different part of the world. Thousands of species have been described from a variety of freshwater habitats around the world (Prescott et al., 1972, 1975, 1977, 1981, 1983; Croasdale et al., 1983). Desmids have been reported from various parts of Asian continent. West and West (1902) reported 279 desmids from Ceylon and 148 desmid taxa from Burma (Myanmar), West Bengal, Bangladesh and Madras presidency (Tamil Nadu) (West and West, 1907). Besides these Kreiger (1932), Hirano (1992), Scott and Prescott (1961) and Kanestsuna (2002), Kanetsuna & Yamagishi, 2018 contributed on the distribution of tropical desmids in the Asian region.
Altogether 27 genera with 272 species having been reported from India (Iyengar and Vimala Bai 1941; Patel and Kumar, 1979; Prasad and Misra, 1992; Bordoloi, 1983; Hegde, 1986; Bongale, 1986; 1987; Issacs and Hegde, 1987; Habib & Pandey (1989); Kumar and Patel, 1988; 1990a; b; Pal and Santra, 1993; Mishra and Srivastava, 2003; Perumal and Anand, 2008; Stanley and Baluswami, 2009). Although Kokrajhar District in Assam is blessed with a variety of freshwater habitats, the freshwater algae from the district have been overlooked from the documentation. But there is a lack of knowledge on this group of algae from the district of Kokrajhar, Assam. The most recent study on freshwater desmids of the state of Assam was done by Deka et al. (2011) Yasmin et al. (2011, 2015), Das & Adhikary (2012), Phukan and Bora (2012) who sampled freshwater habitats in different parts of the state of Assam. In all these studies 25 different genera of desmids of the total 160 algal genera were reported. Besides these sporadic reports, neighboring regions contain a rich documented desmid flora. For example, in a study of desmids from Eastern Himalayas, Das D & Keshri JP (2012, 2013, 2016) reported 272 taxa under 27 genera. Thus, this study aims to documents the diversity of Desmids in the Kokrajhar District of Assam, India. As this group, of organisms, is considered as the quality indicator of the freshwater habitat (Ngeampat and Peerapornpisal, 2007) thus, in order to study the freshwater algae from a distribution, diversity, and taxonomic point of view the desmids is chosen for the present study. Get full articles by following the link J. Bio. Env. Sci. 17(4), 11-20, October 2020.
Adesalu TA, Nwankwo DI. 2010. A checklist of desmids of Lekki Lagoon, Nigeria. International Journal of Biodiversity and Convervation 2(3), 033-036.
Bold HC, Wynne MJ. 1978. Introduction to the Algae. Structure and Reproduction. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall xiv+706 p.
Bongale UD. 1987. Records of certain interesting desmid taxa from Karnataka state. Phykos 26, 53-56.
Bordoloi RPM. 1983. On some abnormal and asymmetric desmids from Assam. Phycos 22(1/2)
Brook AJ. 1981. The Biology of Desmids. Vol. 16, University of California Press USA.
Brook AJ, Johnson LR. 2002. Order Zygnematales. In: The Freshwater Algal Flora of British Isles. John, DM, BA Whittton and AJ Brook (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, UK., pp. 49-593
Bruhl P, Biswas K. 1926. Algae of Loktak Lake. Mem.Asiat. Soc. Bengal 8(3), 257-315. pl. 1-6.
Coesel PFM, Meesters J. 2007. Desmids of the Lowlands. Mesotaeniaceae and Desmidaceae of the European Lowlands. KNNV Publishing, Zeist, NLD. 351 p.
Croasdale HT, Bicudo CE deM, Prescott GW. 1983. A synopsis of North American desmids. Part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 5. The filamentous genera. The University of Nebrasca Press, USA pp. 1-117.
Das Sudipta Kumar, Adhikary Siba Prasad. 2012. Freshwater algae of Cherrapunjee and Mawsynram, the wettest places on earth; Phykos 44(2), 29-43 (2012)
Das D, Keshri JP. 2012. Desmids from Manmecho (Mamencho) Lake, Eastern Himalaya. І NeBio 3(2), 37-44.
Das D, Keshri JP. 2013. Desmids from South Sikkim, India. Nelumbo 55, 172-180
Das D, Keshri JP. 2016. Desmids of Eastern Himalaya. Bibliotheca Phycologica 119, pp.260
Deka SK, Sarma GC, Deka SP. 2011. Preliminary checklist of desmids of Urpad Beel (wetland) Goalpara district, Assam, India. Asian. J. Exp. Biol. Sci. 2(3), 391-398.
Gerrath JF. 1993. The biology of desmids: a decade of progress. p. 79–192. In Round, F. E. and D. J. Chapman [eds.], Progress in Phycological Research. Biopress Ltd, Bristol.
Gerrath JF. 2005. Conjugating Green Algae and Desmids. In: Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification, Wehr, J.D. and R.G. Sheath (Eds.). Academic Press, USA pp: 353-381.
Habib I, Pandey UC. 1989. On some desmids from paddy fields of Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh India). J. Phytol. Res 2(2), 155-160.
Hegde GR. 1986. Some noteworthy Desmids from Shimoga district, Karnataka State (India). Hydrobiol 140(2), 149-152.
Hirano M. 1992. Desmids from Thailand and Malaysia, Contr. Boil. Lab. Kyoto. Univ 28, 1-98, pp 1-51
Isaacs SW, Hegde GR. 1987. Freshwater algae of Karnataka state: Certain taxa from Uttara Kannada district new to the flora of Karnataka. Phykos 26, 123129.
Iyengar MOP, Vimla Bai B. 1941. Desmids from Kodaikanal, South India. J. Indian Bot. Soc 20, 73-103.
Kadiri MO. 2002. A checklist of desmids in Nigeria. Global Journal of pure and Applied Sciences 8(2), 223-237.
Kadiri MO, Omozusi HI. 2002. A pre-pollution study of the phytoplankton of an oligotrophic river in southern Nigeria. Afri. J. Environ. Pollut. Health 1(1), 19-27.
Kanetsuna Y, Yamagishi. 2018. Desmids of Southeast Asia, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh pp. 429
Kanetsuna Y. 2002. New and interesting desmids (Zygnematales, Chlorophyceae) collected from Asia. Phycological Research 50, 101-113.
Krieger W. 1932. Die Desmidiaceen der Deutschen Limnologischen Sunda-Expedition. Arch Hydrobiol, Suppl 11, 129-230
Kumar ACK, Patel RJ. 1988. Desmids of Gujarat-Genus Cosmarium Corda. Phykos 27(1&2), 117-128.
Kumar ACK, Patel RJ. 1990a. Desmids of Gujarat-I Genus Cosmarium Corda. Phykos 29(1&2), 95-101.
Kumar ACK, Patel RJ. 1990b. Desmids of Gujarat-II Staurastrum Meyen. Phykos 29(1&2), 103-109.
Mishra PK, Srivastava AK. 2003. Some desmids (Chlorophyceae) from NorthEastern Uttar Pradesh, India. J. Indian Bot. Soc 82, 85-92.
Ngearapat N, Peerapornpisal Y. 2007. Application of desmid diversity in assessing the water quality of 12 freshwater resources in Thailand. J. Applied Phycol 19, 667-674.
Pal UC, Santra SC. 1993. Algal flora of Midnapore III. Desmidiaceae. Phykos 32, 1-2.
Patel RJ, Kumar Asoka CK. 1979. Desmids of Gujarat, India-I. Genus Closterium Nitzsch. Phycos 18, 111-124.
Perumal GM, Anand N. 2008. Manual of freshwater algae of Tamil Nadu. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh pp. (i-x), 1-133
Phukan Sangita, Bora Sailendra Prasad. 2012. Preliminary report of desmids (Algae, Chlorophyceae) from Sivasagar District, Assam, Journ. Of Frontline Research in Arts and Science 02(2012), 134-141
Prasad BN, Misra PK. 1992. Freshwater algal flora of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Vol. II. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, pp. 284
Prescott GW, Bicudo CEM, Vinyard WC. 1983. A Synopsis of North American Desmids. Part 2: Desmidiaceae: Placodermae.
Prescott GW, Croasdale HT, Vinyard WC. 1977. A Synopsis of North American Desmids. Part II, Section 2. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press.
Prescott GW, Croasdale HT, Vinyard WC, Bicudo CEM. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids. Part 2: Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 3. University of Nebraska press, Lincoln and London. 720 p.
Prescott GW. 1951. Algae of the Wester Great Lakes Area. Cranbook Institute of science, Boomfield Hills, Michigan.
Prescott GW. 1976. How to Know the Freshwater Algae. Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, Lowa.
Prescott GW, Croasdale HT, Vinyard WC. 1972. Desmidiales. Saccodermae, Mesotaeniaceae. North American Flora. Series II: Part 6. New York Botanical Garden NY. 84 p.
Prescott GW, Croasdale HT, Vinyard WC. 1975. A Synopsis of North American Desmids, Part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Sec. 1. Univ. Nebraska Press, Lincoln, USA pp. 275.
Scott M, Arthur, Prescott GW. 1961. Indonesian Desmids, Hydrobiol XVII, 1-2, pp.259, 63 plates
Stanley Raja VK, Baluswami M. 2009. A first report on occurrence of the taxa of Cosmarium (Zygnematales, Chlorophyceae) in Thirunelfveli and Kannyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu, India. In: S.Krishnan and D.J. Bhat (Eds.) Plant and Fungal Biodiversity and Bioprospecting, Broadway Book Centre, Goa 41-50.
Timme RE, Bachvaroff TR, Delwiche CF. 2012. Broad phylogenetic sampling and the sister lineage of land plants. Plos ONE 7: e29696.
Turmel M, Otis C, Lemieux C. 2013. Tracing the evolution of streptophyte algae and their mitochondrial genome. Genome Biol. Evol 5(10), 1817-1835.
Turner WB. 1978. Freshwater Algae of East India (Principally Desmidiaceae) of East India. Bishen Shingh Mahendra Pal Singh Publication, Dehradun, India.
West W, West GS. 1905. A Monograph of the British Desmidiaceae-II. Adlard and Son, London.
West W, West GS. 1912. A Monograph of the British Desmidiaceae-IV. Adlard and Son, London.
West W, West GS. 1902. A Contribution to the Freshwater Algae of Ceylon. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 2. Ser. (Bot.) 6, 123-215, 6 pl.
West W, West GS. 1907. Algae from Burma. Ann. R. Bot. Garden Calcutta 6, 175-249, 7 pl.
Yasmin Farishta, Buragohain BB, Sarma Rabindra. 2015. Aquatic Algae from Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India ; Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci 4(12), 297-302
Yasmin F, Buragohain BB, Medhi KK. 2011. Planktonic Desmid Flora of South of the Eastern Himalayas: A systematic approach on Algae I. International Journal of Botany.