The Four Categories of Muscular Fitness
Maximize your muscular abilities in strength, power, endurance and hypertrophy!
Strength Training Defined
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) defines strength training as a form of physical activity that is designed to improve muscular fitness by exercising a muscle or a muscle group against external resistance.
Types of Strength Training
The four strength training types include:
- Muscular Strength
- Muscular Power
- Muscular Hypertrophy and muscular endurance.
- Muscular Endurance
Training for Muscular Strength
Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert maximal force.
Optimal Loads for Muscular Strength
Novice-Intermediate Lifters: 60% to 70% of your one rep max (the weight you can lift only lift one time)
Advanced Lifters: 80% to 100% of one rep max
Optimal Volume for Increasing Muscular Strength
Novice-Intermediate Lifters: 8-12 reps for 1 to 3 sets
Advanced Lifters: 1-8 reps for 2-6 sets
Optimal Rest Periods for Increasing Muscular Strength
High intense exercises with heavy loads: 2-3 minutes
Lower intense exercises with light loads: 1-2 minutes
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Training for Muscular Power
Power is measured by the greatest output attainable during a particular movement in a given period of time. Power is required in activities of daily living, sport and work.
Optimal Loads for Muscular Power
Upper body lifts: 30%-60% of 1 rep max
Lower body lifts: 0 to 60 of 1 rep max
Optimal Volume for Muscular Power
3-6 reps for 1-3 sets per exercise
Optimal Rest for Muscular Power
2-3 minutes for higher intense exercises that use heavier loads. 1-2 minutes between lower intense exercises that use lighter loads.
Training For Muscular Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy is the enhancement of muscle size.
Optimal Loads for Hypertrophy training
Novice-Intermediate Lifters: 70%-85% of 1 rep max
Advance Lifters: 70% to 100% of one rep max
Optimal Volume for Hypertrophy training
Novice-Intermediate Lifters: 8 to 12 reps for 1 to 3 sets
Advanced Lifters: 1 to 12 reps for 3 to 6 sets
Optimal Rest Periods for Hypertrophy Training
Highly intense lifts with heavy loads = 2 to 3 minutes
Lower intense lifts with lighter loads = 1 to 2 minutes
Training for Muscular Endurance
Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeatedly exert a sub-maximal resistance.
Optimal Loads for Muscular Endurance Training
Lower than 70% of 1 Rep Max
Optimal Volume for Muscular Endurance Training
10-25 repetitions for 2-4 sets
Optimal Rest Periods for Muscular Endurance Training
30 seconds to one minute between each set