Learn more about common pediatric orthopaedic diseases here...

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Learn more about common pediatric orthopaedic diseases here...

Dr. Ratnav Ratan will go over all you need to know about pediatric orthopedic illnesses in this post.

Children's bones are constantly growing and reshaping (remodeling) themselves. The growth plate is a fragile part of the bone where growth takes place. Old bone tissue is gradually replaced by new bone tissue during remodeling. As per the pediatric orthopedic doctor in Gurgaon, many bone disorders are caused by changes in a child's musculoskeletal system as they develop. As the child grows, these disorders can improve or worsen.

The metabolic bone disease affects children and is caused by various inherited and acquired disorders of multiple etiologies that disrupt the metabolism of bone tissue.

After a traumatic event, it is not unusual for children to present with fractures. On the other hand, pathological fractures occur in irregular bones and usually occur during regular activity or after mild trauma in children.

Learn more about common pediatric orthopaedic diseases here...

Localized pain and tenderness over the affected bone are common symptoms of these fractures. It's also very typical for a more minor, non-verbal child to refuse to bear weight.

Some of the most common pediatric bone diseases suggested by Dr Ratnav Ratan, a pediatric orthopaedic doctor in Gurgaon are:

1. Growth plates

Bones are sturdy structures. However, bones must grow in tandem with the rest of the child's body. The soft areas of cartilage at the ends of bones develop into children's bones. Growth plates are the term for these regions. Development plates harden into the strong bone after a child's growth is complete. Bones do not increase in length until the growth plates have solidified. That is why, after a certain point in late adolescence, people do not grow any taller. While bones can repair themselves after an injury, the growth plates are not involved in this process.

Osteochondrosis is used to describe a group of growth plate disorders that arise while a child is developing rapidly. Doctors are unsure what causes osteochondrosis, but it seems to run in families. Köhler bone disease, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, Osgood-Schlatter disease, and Scheuermann disease are all osteochondroses. Injury to the growth plate during infancy may cause the bone to develop abnormally.

Growth plates

2. Pathophysiology

While there are several etiologies for damaged bone manifesting as pathological fractures, it can be categorized into three groups:

1) Metabolic bone disorder, for example, rickets

2) Bone tumours, including benign (non-ossifying fibroma and osteochondroma) and malignant (osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma) tumours.

3) Bone disorder involving connective tissue, such as Osteogenesis Imperfecta

i. Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD): MBD is a form of metabolic bone disease Calcium and phosphate are required for average bone growth and mineralization. Nutritional deficiencies (calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D), drug-induced rickets, renal pathology, and tumours are all possible causes of rickets. The failure to calcify the growth plate cartilage due to a deficiency of either calcium or phosphate is the end product and clinical symptom of rickets. Rickets is a disease that affects children, particularly those who have a poor diet, poor absorption, or increased excretion of calcium, phosphate, or vitamin D, and premature infants or breast-fed infants who are not supplemented with vitamin D.

Learn more about common pediatric orthopaedic diseases here...

Reduced linear growth, bone deformations, and non-traumatic fractures leading to bone pain, loss of motor development, and impairment are the most common clinical effects of bone metabolic diseases in children.

ii. Bone Tumors: Tumors may cause pathological fractures by developing and replacing normal bone tissue, regardless of whether benign or malignant. As a result, the bone becomes abnormally weakened and more susceptible to fractures. Benign bone tumours are pretty normal in infants, but they are mostly asymptomatic and found by chance during a physical examination for another disease, so the actual occurrence is uncertain. They can present with localized pain, swelling, deformity, or a pathological fracture if they are symptomatic.

Malignant bone tumours make up 5% of all pediatric cancers, with the incidence peaking between 10 and 24. Ewing's sarcoma and osteosarcoma are the two most common malignant bone tumours in children, accounting for 90 percent of all pediatric bone tumours.

Within the first ten years, Ewing's sarcoma is the most common cancer, followed by osteosarcoma. Cancers of the pelvis, femur, tibia, and humerus are common. Pain and swelling are usual symptoms, which can worsen with exercise or at night, and often the first signs are due to a pathological fracture.

iii. Connective Tissue Disease: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), also known as "brittle bone disease," is an inherited connective tissue condition that can occur in various ways, ranging from mild to fatal. It's typically caused by a lack of normal Type I collagen, an organic component needed for proper bone formation. Although its prevalence is estimated to be about 0.005%, it is critical to include this disease in the differential diagnosis since it can present multiple and recurring pathological fractures in children as early as infancy.

These are the different common diseases that are usually caused. By consulting the pediatric orthopaedic doctor in Gurgaon, effective measures can be taken to treat the children affected.