The use of plants extracts in the improvement of cowpea yield | IJAAR 2021
By: Mr. Kapeuhag Latchikou Casimir, Barry Borkeum Raoul, Wini Goudoungou Jean, Dabolé Massah Odette, Ngakou Albert, and Mr. Nukenine Elias Nchiwan
In the substitution of chemical insecticides with potential biopesticides, the efficiency of Lippia multiflora, Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus were evaluated on the improvement of cowpea (Vinia unguiculata) in Dang (Ngaoundere, Cameroon). The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 5 treatments repeated 4 times each: the negative control, the positive control (Decis), L. multiflora, P. glandulosus and C. rigidus. These different insecticides were sprayed on cowpea plants with 14 days interval starting from the 14th day after sowing. The parameters collected were the diversity of insect pests, the number of pods, and the dry weight of the grains. All of the insecticides used improved cowpea yields. Although less efficient than Decis, most biopesticides significantly (p < 0.001) improved the yield of cowpeas compared to the negative control. This improvement was 260% for C. rigidus, and 120% for P. glandulosus. These results suggest that C. rigidus, P. glandulosus and L. multiflora could be considered as potential substitutes for chemical insecticides in improving cowpea yields.
Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is essential to reduce poverty and strengthen food security (FAO, 2009a). Vigna unguiculata which occupies an important place in the Sudano-Sahelian and Guinean zones (Isubikalu et al., 2000) would therefore be a major asset, not only for food balance, but also for economic development (Adeoti et al., 2002). Indeed, this leguminous plant is cultivated for its richness in food proteins (20-25%) (Bressani, 1985; Rivas-Vega et al., 2006), but its production is rather low (MINADER, 2012). More than 80% of this low production is due to insect pests (Tamò et al., 1993), and the use of chemical pesticides has often caused more problems than it has solved (Bambara and Tiemtoré, 2008). In the development of healthier control strategies to increase the productivity of cowpea, plants extracts or botanicals could be used to substitute chemical insecticides (Barry et al., 2017). This is the case of Lippia multiflora, which efficiency has been demonstrated on Sitophilus zeamais (Nukenine et al., 2007), Callistemon rigidus which has been found to be efficient against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae larvae (Danga et al., 2014b), as well as Plectranthus glandulosus which has been shown to be efficient against Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais and Prostephanus truncatus (Ngamo et al., 2007a; Nukenine et al., 20010a). Therefore, the aim of this work was to further research on other plants (Lippia multiflora, Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus), which extracts could be of potential use as biopesticides against cowpea pests, so as to improve the yield. Get the full articles by following the link The use of plants extracts in the improvement of cowpea yield at dang (Ngaoundere, Cameroon)
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